Office of Academic Affairs
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal

Earth and Environmental Sciences

EES 309: Geohydrology (3)

Prerequisites (Desirable): All 100 level CHM, EES and PHY courses.

Learning Objectives:

The emphasis of the course will be on groundwater, although some aspects of surface water hydrology will also be addressed. It will cover the basic empirical knowledge of the occurrence and movement of groundwater, focusing on some of the quantitative aspects as well as on groundwater chemistry. Students will also learn what affects wells have on the steady-state system. They will know how to apply pumping-test data to determine aquifer properties and will obtain a basic understanding of the chemical constituents in groundwater and surface waters. In addition, students will acquire knowledge of the behavior of various pollutants in groundwater systems.

Course Contents:

The water cycle, budgets; water properties, atmospheric water and precipitation; Interception, evaporation and transpiration; Soil moisture and infiltration; Groundwater; Snow hydrology, water balance; Runoff and hydrographs; Flooding; Basins, hill slopes, and erosion; Rivers and streams –hydraulics, sediments, geometries; hydrology and climate; Surface-groundwater interactions.

Properties of Aquifers: 
Porosity and specific yield; Darcy's law; Hydraulic conductivity; Water-table; Types of aquifers,  Groundwater maps; Transmissivity, storativity; Principles of groundwater flow; Hydraulic head;  Velocity; Groundwater flow equations; Flow nets; Refraction of flow lines; Computer aided drafting of  flow nets: Demonstration of FLOWNET; Calculation of steady state flow in confined and unconfined aquifers; The vadose zone; Groundwater recharge; Regional groundwater flow; Principles of salt-water intrusion.

Groundwater Occurrences: 
Groundwater regions of India; Occurrence of groundwater in igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic terrains as well as unconsolidated sediments; Methods of well construction, well casing and screens; Development and disinfection of wells.

Groundwater Flow to Wells: 
Drawdown, cone of depression; Estimation of drawdown in pumped confined aquifers and pumped leaky (semiconfined) aquifers; Drawdown in unconfined aquifers; Determining aquifer parameters from pump-test data, Steady-state and transient conditions, confined aquifers; Time-drawdown methods - Theis method; Jacob time-drawdown straight line method; Jacob distance-drawdown straight line method; AQTESOLV and other computer programs; Slug Tests; Well efficiency; Well specific capacity; Estimating aquifer transmissivity from specific capacity data; Effects of well interference and aquifer boundaries; Estimation of distance to a hidden source of recharge.

Water Chemistry:
Water sampling; Aqueous chemistry of ionic compounds (minerals) major, minor and trace constituents; Methods of analyses of above ions in water sample; Groundwater and carbonate rocks; Specific conductance as a measure of concentration; Eh-pH controls; Cation exchange; Methods of chemical data presentation; Introduction to water quality; Chemical composition of natural waters; Atmospheric precipitation; Groundwater; River waters; Lakes and reservoirs; Sea-water; Sources of groundwater contamination; Water quality standards for drinking, agricultural and industrial purposes; Ground water monitoring; Plotting chemical data using a computer; Transport of pollutants in ground water; Advection and dispersion; Sorption and diffusive mass transfer; Aquifer remediation; Groundwater restoration.

Managing Water Resources: 
Reservoirs, desalination, controlling demand and waste, protecting the environment, hydropolitics; Integrated water resources management, system analysis in water resources management, case studies - Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery rivers.

Suggested Readings :

  1. Freeze, A. R., and Cherry, J. A., 1979, Groundwater, Prentice Hall.
  2. Walton, W. C., 1970, Groundwater Resource Evaluation, McGraw-Hill.
  3. Karanth, K. R., 2014,Groundwater Assessment Development and Management, McGraw-Hill.
  4. Subramanya, K., 1994, Engineering Hydrology, McGraw-Hill.
  5. Todd, D. K., and Mays, L. W., 2004, Groundwater Hydrology (3rd Edition), Wiley.

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