Office of Academic Affairs
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal

Earth and Environmental Sciences

EES 301: Mineralogy (3)

Prerequisites (Desirable): All CHM 100 level courses and EES 100 and 200 level courses

Learning Objectives:

As minerals are the basic building blocks of Earth materials, this course is designed to give a fundamental understanding of their classification, structure, and properties. The student will learn the basic principles of crystal chemistry and how this is related to the external form, chemical composition, and physical properties of minerals. Identification, classification and interpretation of the occurrence of rock-forming minerals will be addressed.

Course Contents:

Structure of the course, introduction to the subject and history of mineralogy.

Definition of mineral and crystal; Fundamental laws of crystallography; Introduction to crystallography and the seven crystal systems; Pattern, symmetry operations in plane lattices; Symmetry operations in space lattices - axes of rotation, mirror , center of symmetry, roto-inversion; Bravais Lattices; Crystal forms and their nomenclature; 32 point group symmetries in Hermann Mauguin Notations; Miller’s Indices; Nature of X-rays, X-ray crystallography; Derivation of the space groups using X-ray Crystallography; Bragg Equation and its application in mineralogy.

Mineral Chemistry:
Introduction to crystal chemistry - ionic radii and coordination number; Chemical affinity and geochemical classification of elements; Mineralogy of the Solar System; Chemical bonding, coordination polyhedra, radius ratio, and Pauling’s rules; Major and minor trace elements in minerals; Isomorphism, polymorphism, twinning, phase transformations and crystalline defects; Mineralogical Phase Rule, phase diagrams (binary eutectic, peritectic, solid solutions, exolution), phase equilibria and introduction to the stable mineral assemblages of rocks.

Physical Properties of Minerals in Hand Specimen:
Color, luster, form, streak, hardness, fracture, cleavage, habit, specific gravity, crystal system, magnetic properties, optical properties, other special properties and occurrences.

Optical Mineralogy:
Introduction to optical mineralogy; Petrological microscope, isotropic and anisotropic minerals; Uniaxial and biaxial indicatrices; Optical properties in relation to indicatrices absorption and pleochroism, extinction, birefregence; Interference figures. 

Descriptive Mineralogy of Common Rock Forming Minerals:

Mineralogy in the Indian Context:
Occurrences of various minerals in India.

Introduction to Igneous Petrology:
Bowen’s Reaction Series; Mineralogy and petrology of igneous rocks.

Suggested Readings :

  1. Putnis, A., 1992, An Introduction to Mineral Science, Cambridge University Press.
  2. Deer, W. A., Howei, R. A., and Zussman, J., 2013 An Introduction to Rock Forming Minerals (3rd Edition), Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  3. Klein, C., and Butrow, B., 2008, The 23rd edition of the Manual of Mineral Science (4th Edition), John Wiley and Sons.
  4. Wenk, H.-R. and Bulakh, A., 2016, Minerals – Their Constitution and Origin (2nd Edition), Cambridge University Press.
  5. Nesse, W. D., 2011, Introduction to Mineralogy (2nd Edition), Oxford University Press.

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